The Town Stream, the A38 and Wellington banks
At the Society event in on 23rd February, a sizeable audience heard Colin Spackman’s talk covering 3 separate topics. These were the Town Stream, the A38 and Wellington’s banks. The Town Stream was an artificial open watercourse first mentioned in the 14th century, bringing water to the town from the base of the Blackdown Hills. Various maps have been annotated with ‘Town Stream’ over the years, although today there are few traces remaining. It followed the line of the ditch at the bottom of Webber’s Close open space, but the section along South Street was culverted in 1972. The name lives on by virtue of the property in Pyles Thorne Road, which is called Town Stream House.
The A38, linking the south-west with the rest of the country came into being when road numbering was introduced in 1923, initially from Plymouth to Derbyshire, later extended from Bodmin to Mansfield. The road runs through Wellington from the Devon border at something of a pinch point which, in addition to the road, accommodated the canal, railway, motorway, an electricity transmission line and the transatlantic cable. The route is included on John Ogilvy’s map of 1675 and the road was subsequently run by the Taunton Turnpike Trust between 1752 and 1876. There were tollgates within what is now the town. The route between Wellington and Taunton was improved in the 1920s and 30s, with new bridges over watercourses and bends straightened out. The flyover at Beam Bridge was built in 1962, to relieve congestion at the narrow railway over-bridge. When the Wellington relief road was built in the 1970s, it was designated the A38 and the route into the town from Chelston became part of the B3187. The later opening of the M5 motorway further reduced traffic through Wellington.
With the closure of the HSBC bank in the town, coverage of Wellington’s banks was very topical. HSBC has had a presence in the town since 1911, when the London Joint City & Midland Bank Ltd moved into the former Grattons premises in the centre of town. The bank changed its name to the Midland Bank in the 1920s. The Museum possesses a metal plaque, which has Midland Bank Ltd on one side and the former name on the other. Lloyds Bank originated as the Fox Fowler & Co Bank in 1885, becoming part of Lloyds in 1927. Barclays Bank was also a former Fox Fowler bank, before being occupied by the National Provincial Bank from 1913 until the Barclays take over in 1973. The NatWest started out as Stuckey’s Bank in 1864, before becoming Parr’s Bank in 1909 and the Westminster Bank in 1918. This was merged into the National Westminster Bank in 1970. The future of the 3 remaining banks in the town remains to be seen.
Trial by Jury
On 24th November 2016, John Porter's talk drew similarities between Gilbert and Sullivan’s comic opera ‘Trial by Jury’ with a case at Monmouth Assizes. The opera concerns a breach of promise of marriage lawsuit and was first performed in March 1875 at London’s Royalty Theatre. John related this to a lawsuit, Williams versus Haines, brought 4 days later at the newly opened Monmouth Assizes. At times this case was to prove almost as farcical as its fictional counterpart in London. The case focused on Margaret Williams’ brother-in-law instructing William Haines to prepare a will, in which Margaret was left nothing. When William also called off the marriage, Margaret brought a case of breach of promise of marriage. The case was proven and she was awarded damages. Both Margaret and William subsequently met new partners and married.
The Story of the Kenyon Photographic Archive
On 22nd September 2016, an audience of 61 gathered to hear Dr Janet Tall of the South West Heritage Trust give a presentation of the work being done by the Trust to save the Stanley Kenyon Photographic Archive. Stanley Kenyon came to Wellington from Kent in the 1930s and lived here for the rest of his life. He died in the late 1970s. He gained international recognition within the photographic profession for the quality of his work. The archive of his life’s work is a collection of around 48,000 acetate negatives plus a smaller number of glass negatives. The acetates have begun to deteriorate due to a disease commonly called ‘vinegar syndrome’ but the Trust recognizes that the subject matter of the archives – ranging from industrial scenes in India to Wellington wedding photographs, all from the mid 20th Century – is well worth saving. Unfortunately, finding funds to complete this task is not easy; many potential funders were put off by the need to destroy the infected negatives after preserving the images digitally. Although the digitisation has been carried out by a specialist firm, much of the sorting, cataloguing and checking is being carried out by volunteers at the Heritage Centre in Taunton.
At the end of the formal presentation, members of the audience gave their personal reminiscences of Mr Kenyon. These ranged from his fondness for fast cars to his meticulous approach to recording his work – but with a workplace that wasn’t the tidiest. Dr Tall said that the contributions of the audience were useful in providing background information and context to the archive. The archive is an important and extensive record of life in the mid 20th Century that was produced by one of Wellington’s illustrious inhabitants.
Murder in the Culm Valley
On 28th July 2016, local historian David Pugsley talked his audience through the infamous murder of William Blackmore in Clayhidon in 1853 and the subsequent trial and execution of George Sparkes. David set the scene by giving background to the economic and social history of the area. Life in Clayhiddon at that time was nasty, brutish and short. There was no school and no entertainment, other than the pub. William Blackmore was a farmer, miller and tax collector, who owned 80 acres of land and employed 2 farm labourers. On 5th February, he left home to collect taxes on foot, unaccompanied and unarmed. In the evening, agricultural labourers James Hitchcock and George Sparks were drinking in the White Horse pub at Bolham Water. William Blackmore joined them and a card game ensued, which Blackmore won. The drinking session ended at 1.30 the following morning when the 3 set off to walk home. Blackmore was laden with his tax takings and the other two were hungry and desperate enough to take them. Just before he reached his home, Blackmore was attacked with a pair of iron tongs that Hitchcock and Sparks had taken from the pub. A search party organized later in the day by the parish constable (no police then) found Blackmore dead. Sparks was convicted of his murder and was hanged on 1st April 1853. As an aside, the landlord of the White Horse was prosecuted for out of hours drinking and gambling and fined, as a result of which he went bankrupt.
Midsummer Urban Ramble
On 23rd June, members of the Society met for the annual Midsummer Urban Ramble, this one loosely based on ‘telephones and electricity’, led by Colin Spackman. Starting at the South Street car park, the first call was the Baptist graveyard where the founder of what is now Relyon, Joseph Price, is buried. The former office in the building opposite (now part of Wellington Junior School) still has ‘Price Brothers’ engraved on the window and along Scotts Lane there is an electricity transformer with the legend Price Brothers on it. The adjacent Oxfam shop was at one time a butchers shop. A walk down Clifford Terrace took us past a locally produced Bishop Brothers lamppost before reaching Falcon House, which was at one time Toms organ and stained glass factory. Back along Clifford Terrace brought us to the former Salvation Army premises in Gladstone Terrace, which started out life as a Methodist chapel, and which is to become a nursery as part of Wellington School. The current telephone exchange building in Scotts Lane was erected in 1955, now less utilized with its current computerized equipment. A further substation at the rear of the Waitrose store is labeled Somerfield, the building being built with the latter in mind before they were taken over by the Co-op. The houses forming Acre Cottages, dating back to 1845, were passed before noting another Bishops Brothers lamppost in a private garden in Buckwell. Finally, the first telephone exchange in the town was at Orchard Villas, established in 1901 with 6 subscribers.
Wellingon School Chapel
At the recent event on 2nd June 2016, James Bradnock gave a guided tour of Wellington School Chapel - the Chapel of St Michael and St George. The building was built as a memorial chapel for the fallen of the school in the Great War at the instigation of the then headmaster, George Corner, who asked Old Boys from the school to support the project financially. Designed by Plymouth architect Charles Biddulph-Pincher, it is built of red brick with stone dressings and pinnacles, which were to surround a cupola, but this never materialised due to shortage of money. The clear glass perpendicular windows were considered to be ‘the finest of this generation’. The interior is richly decorated with finely traceried carved oak wood wall panels with elaborately decorated canopies made of plaster fibre, all painted and gilded, the panels with names of the old boys killed in the Great War. There are similarly decorated choir stalls and organ loft over the entrance and canopied reredos. The carved figures and decorative panels were by F.J. Hunt and over the last few years have undergone restoration work. The Chapel is in daily use, but with a maximum capacity of 300 is now too small for the full school, so assemblies are in sections. It is a fitting memorial to those old boys who died in the Great War.
History of Taunton Flower Show
At the recent event on 28th April 2016, Anne and Robin Leamon gave a talk on the History of Taunton Flower Show, the oldest longest running flower show in the country and also frequently dubbed the Chelsea of the West. The first show was held in 1831 in the Assembly Rooms on the Parade, Taunton. In 1851, the show moved to Vivary Park, where it has been held ever since. From the start it was the gentlemen who won the prizes depending upon how good their gardeners were. The gardeners were highly prized and well paid, but not when it came to acknowledging them in competitions – it was the owners who received the prizes, not the workers! Gentlemen exhibitors came from all over the country and have included the Duke of Wellington. The show has been used to exhibit newly discovered plants brought back by plant hunters employed by nurserymen such as Veitch. It was also used by local nurseries to introduce new plants raised by them. Several societies have held their national and international shows in conjunction with Taunton Flower Show, including the International Gladioli Exhibition in 1930. Military bands have always been a feature of the show and until 1970 there was a fireworks display. In recent years, celebrity talks, show gardens in the open and a children’s area have been introduced and in 2014 the show expanded onto Wilton Lands. The Show now attracts 14-15,000 people over the 2 days it is held each year in August.
Annual General Meeting
At the annual meeting on 24th March 2016, outgoing Chairman Judith Ward thanked the Officers and Committee for the work they have done over the year together with others who help out at events and at other times. The accounts showed a healthy balance and membership numbers were stable. Curator Colin Spackman reported that there had been about 2,500 visitors to the museum during 2015 and there had been a steady amount of new donations and acquisitions to the collection. The Society was also increasingly becoming a valuable source of historical information for researchers. The new Chairman is Paddy Gray with Judith Ward as Vice-Chairman. Carole Moore and David Young continue in their posts as secretary and treasurer respectively. The remainder of the committee consists of John Hamer, Ray Hitchcock, Gillian Taylor, Colin Spackman and Linda Wiltshire. Joan Copleston was appointed as a Trustee.
Following the Annual Meeting, David Young gave an illustrated talk on the Covent Garden Theatre, which started in 1732 following a Royal Patent issued by Charles II. The name originated from it being the theatre in the convent garden. There were daily performances, the doors opening 3 hours before commencement and servants and footmen keeping seats for their masters. David talked about the various proprietors with their varied types of performances and events and explained the different payment methods, including metal tickets or tokens, which were in use until 1874 when they were replaced by paper tickets, and box payments (hence the term box office). There were disastrous fires in 1808 and 1856, following which the current building, designed by EM Barry, was erected. The theatre became the Royal Opera House in 1892. During World War 2, Mecca leased the building and it became a dance hall for servicemen. It took on its current name of Royal Opera House Covent Garden in 1968.
Wellington and its Railway
At the Society event on 25th February 2016, a capacity audience heard Colin Spackman speak about Wellington and its railway, in particular the social impact the railway had on the town. A number of Colin’s ancestors and relatives worked at the Great Western Railway’s Swindon Works. Before the coming of the railways, the only modes of transport were horse drawn, horseback or walking and this included the carriage of newspapers and mail. A handbill advertised Taunton to London by flying machine – 2 days by horse drawn coach! By 1842, the railway had reached Taunton and by 1843 it headed further west as far as Beam Bridge, passing through a new station at Wellington. Records show details of the land sales from names such as Sanford, Thomas, Fox and Weir. At that time, the station was separated from the town by fields, the road northwards out of the town being known as Millway. It was only later that Station Road came along. The coming of the railways resulted in canal traffic being killed off and also different local times were synchronized into a single standard time. The reason the railway only ran as far as Beam Bridge initially was that the 1,094 yards long Whiteball Tunnel was not completed until 1844. Lined with 7 million bricks it is the highest point on the London to Exeter via Bristol route at 350 feet. Banking engines were often employed on heavy trains from Wellington to the summit. The line was initially built as broad gauge, with mixed gauge introduced in 1876, but standard gauge was adopted in 1892. Wellington Bank was the scene of the claimed first steam locomotive to exceed 100mph. City of Truro was timed at a speed of 102.3mph in 1904. In 1905, the Westbury to Newbury route to London was opened, shortening the journey from the West to London by 20 miles. In the 1930’s the line through Wellington station was quadrupled. At this time there were 33 staff at the station, but times changed and the station closed in 1964 as part of the Beeching cuts. The talk ended with a general discussion on the possibility or otherwise of Wellington ever having a station again.
Longforth Farm Mediaeval Manor House Discoveries
On 26th November 2015, Phil Andrews from Wessex Archaeology explained the mystery of the archaeological site at Longforth Farm. Expectations were not high after the geophysical survey, which revealed nothing, and there was also very little from subsequent test pits. However things changed when they began fieldstripping on an area north of the site near the railway. Bits of medieval wall footings were uncovered but as yet they didn't know from what type of building. The scale of the work increased and more footings were found. A reconstruction of the foundations shows a north facing medieval manor house with a second floor central hall. To the west is a solar (living apartments) and to the east service rooms. A detached kitchen and guest block were also uncovered. Further evidence of a high status building is the discovery of a garderobe adjacent to the solar.
There were few finds from the site. This is indicative of high status, as rubbish on the site would have been removed. The pottery and floor tiles date from the 12th to the 14th centuries. The crested roof tiles are also evidence of high status. No records of such a house have been discovered but it is thought to have been built adjacent to the track from St Johns Church to Nynehead by the Bishops of Bath and Wells. It fell out of use in the late 14th or early 15th centuries, abandoned and robbed out. The stone would have been used for building in the surrounding area.
The site is to be a green space as part of the housing development and maintained for the future. Maybe one day written records will be discovered. .............................................................................
Visit to Henry VIII Mural in Milverton
On 22nd October 2015, members visited the Old House in Milverton. When the new owners Rhodri and Angie Powell were renovating their Grade II* listed property, a Tudor wall painting of Henry VIII was discovered underneath the plaster as it was being removed. The property once served as the summer residence of Thomas Cranmer, the Arch Deacon of Taunton, who went on to be the Archbishop of Canterbury. It is believed that the mural, which measures about 6’ x 20’ was painted sometime around 1532-1542 as an expression of loyalty to the king. It is the only one of its kind in a domestic dwelling.
The Poor Law and the Wellington Workhouse
At the event on 24th September 2015, David Hawkings talked about the Poor Law and Workhouses. A system of relief for the poor had developed in England starting in the 16th century. In each parish residents were expected to pay into a fund, which provided help for the destitute and infirm. Over the years the system had become bureaucratic and unwieldy. A parish would only help those who were deemed to have originated there and ‘strangers’ were made to return to their home parishes, after detailed enquiries and paperwork had been completed.
In 1834 the Poor Law Amendment Act ordered the building of a workhouse in all towns of any size, to house the poor from the parishes of the surrounding area. Management was in the hands of an elected Board of Guardians and was financed by a rate charged on householders. The Master saw to the administration and discipline and the Matron to household affairs. Lists were kept of all inmates, including ages, previous work, and health and detailed reports about conditions had to be submitted regularly to the Poor Law Commissioners who could arrive unannounced to inspect the premises. A Medical Officer and a Nurse were appointed for each Union of parishes to organise care for the sick, and children were given a very basic education to ready them for life as servants or labourers.
Life was not intended to be easy for the inmates. Men, women, boys and girls each lived in separate accommodation and were rarely allowed to meet. All able bodied inmates were expected to do hard physical labour such as breaking bones to make fertiliser or stones for road building. The women would do the cleaning, sewing and cooking in the workhouse. Some workhouses were better kept than others and there were reports of abuses of the system.
The Wellington Workhouse, which was opened in 1837, was one of the earliest. It continued as an institution until the 1970’s, having been absorbed into the National Health Service after the 2nd World War. It occupied the area now covered by the Lodge Close development. All that now remains are the gates, which are hidden behind the bus shelter in North Street. The census taken in1841 lists 82 residents ranging in age from 3 months to over 85 years, some being noted as imbeciles, blind or insane.
Although David’s family had roots in Wellington and Rockwell Green, he was able to recount stories from around the country that came to light while he was researching his family history using the vast amount of documentation produced by the administration of the Poor Law held in the National Archives. David’s knowledge of the subject was obvious and is recorded in his book “Pauper Ancestors – a Guide to the Records Created by the Poor Laws in England” published by The History Press. The event ended with a brief discussion on the merits, or otherwise, of the Poor Law system – with a general desire to know more about the Wellington Workhouse’s own history.
At the Society event on 23rd July 2015, several members of the Society gave a short talk on an ancestor or two of theirs.
First up was Carole Moore who spoke about John Frederick Hornsey. After a period as a maker of scientific instruments at Oxford University, he trained to be a doctor and following his taste for traveling became a ship’s doctor. He then became the medical officer on a rubber plantation in North Borneo before moving to a doctor’s practice in Singapore. In 1917 he joined the Royal Army Medical Corps and was sent to France with the King’s Shropshire Light Infantry.
Brian Hillier has traced his ancestors back to 1625, many of them fairly localized from the North Somerset settlements of High Littleton, Emmer Green and Hallatrow, with others slightly further afield from Nunney and Evercreech. Many of them were from large families of agricultural labourers and coalminers.
Sophie Hippisley firstly spoke about Hester Medlum who in 1795 was a parish apprentice in housewifery. Secondly Samuel Hippisley, who ended up in Wells Workhouse before being admitted to Wells Asylum, where he died of dementia in 1905.
Next was John Hamer, who spoke about his 4 generations of watchmaking Lancastrian ancestors. John concentrated on Arthur, his great grandfather, who followed on the trade from his father and established a shop selling jewellery, clocks and watches in Preston 1886. Arthur also had a stall on Preston market and two of his brothers also became watchmakers in their own premises in Preston. His 2 sons and grandson (John’s father) subsequently became involved with the business which continued in existence until 1971. He was very involved with local organisations in the town, including becoming chairman of the Chamber of Trade in 1926. His leisure interests included bowling and holding various offices at his local Methodist chapel.
Mike Perry talked about his wife’s great uncle, Thomas Henry Lovelace Bowling, who fought in the Indian Mutiny in the 1850s – on the side of the Royal Navy. As a 16 year old naval recruit, he joined HM’s screw steam ship Pearl, the first of a new class of 21 gun corvettes. After a period around the Pacific station, in 1856, the ship was ordered to transport HM 90th Regiment from Singapore to Calcutta. Along with men from another ship, HM Shannon, the Pearl’s crew formed a so called Naval Brigade – the guns were unloaded and put on barges and taken upstream. During the whole of 1858, they fought vastly superior forces around Uttar Pradesh. Once peace had been restored in 1859, the crew returned to Calcutta and set sail for home via the Cape of Good Hope and St Helena, thus circumnavigating the world. In all they had been away from home for 3 years, and Tom was still only 19. He was mentioned in dispatches 3 times, which helped him in later promotions, eventually reaching the rank of Paymaster-in-Chief of the Navy. He served in the Abyssinian Campaign but spent most of the rest of his career as an administrator, assisting various admirals before retiring in 1904. He never married and died in 1922.
Colin Spackman spoke briefly about the meaning of his surname and the cluster of ancestors and others with the same surname from Clyffe Pypard in Wiltshire, a number of who are buried in the parish churchyard there. In summing up the evening, Colin, the Museum Curator, ran through the material which the Society holds that may be of use to family historians. These include indexes to the 1841 and 1891 Censuses, churchyard inscriptions, directories and town guides covering most the 20th Century, an employment record book from Fox Brothers and a Poor Law Rate Book covering the years 1836-1839.
Sir John Popham
On 23rd April 2015, James Bradnock gave an illustrated talk about Sir John Popham. Although little known in the town itself, he was a significant man in the world that he was involved in. He was born at Huntworth near North Petherton in 1531, one of 6 children. He studied law at Oxford before beginning his legal career in 1871 as Recorder of Bridgwater. He married local girl Amy Games and they had 6 daughters and a son. The daughters were all married off to influencial families. He was elected MP for Bristol and rose through being Speaker of the House of Commons and Attorney General to become Lord Chief Justice. He was a big supporter of Elizabeth. As a lawyer, he covered a wide range, including drawing up statute to ensure that coinage was equal throughout the UK and that prescriptions had to have the patients’ name on them. He presided over the trials of Sir Walter Raleigh, the conspirators of the Gunpowder Plot, including Guy Fawkes, and Mary Queen of Scots. Popham became a very wealthy man and owned a number of estates. He had an interest in several commercial ventures, including what was to be known as Popham’s Eau, a 7 mile long dyke in the Fens. He built a mansion in Wellington, which was destroyed during the Civil War, and the Popham’s Almshouses in Mantle Street (now the Roman Catholic Church). As Executor of Peter Blundell’s will, he was asked to establish a free grammar school in Tiverton (Blundell’s School). Popham died in 1607 and is buried in St John’s Church, where there is a large freestanding monument.
Annual General Meeting
At the Annual Meeting on 26th March 2015, Chairman Judith Ward thanked the Committee for the work they have done over the year together with others who help out at events and at other times. The death of Graham Jones, who had done much behind the scenes in the museum, was reported. New arrangements in the museum, the new signs and the bicentenary of the Battle of Waterloo were mentioned before finally an appreciation of members’ support. Curator Colin Spackman reported that about 60 objects had been received over the last year and that in a joint collaboration with the National Trust, items related to the Monument in the Society’s collection have been documented. The museum has been renamed ‘Wellington Museum & Local History Centre’ to reflect the amount of local history material which has been amassed in recent years. Colin considered that the Society has the ‘best collection of Wellington related material in the world’. Chief Steward Carole Moore reported that there were currently 23 regular stewards, but there is always room for more to spread the load. Judith Ward was re-elected Chairman and Paddy Gray Vice-Chairman. Carole Moore and David Young continue in their posts as secretary and treasurer respectively. The remainder of the committee now consists of John Hamer, Ray Hitchcock, Gillian Taylor, Colin Spackman and Linda Wiltshire.
Following the Annual Meeting, David Rabson gave a talk on ‘A Brief History of the British in the Pyrenees from the Black Prince to the Victorian Tourist’. David has a forthcoming book entitled ‘From Somerset to the Pyrenees’, a biography of the Reverend William Arthur Jones, a geologist and antiquary who was a prominent member of the Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society (SANHS) and a highly regarded figure in Taunton civic life. The Pyrenees are on the border of France and Spain and within the area are about 200 fortified new towns (bastides). The wine region of Bordeaux was developed as a consequence of the English interest in wine. In 1813, the Duke of Wellington crossed the Pyrenees on his way from Portugal to France. With the development of the railways, the favourable climate of the area attracted many Brits and by 1847,for example, the town of Pau had more British inhabitants than French. Apart from visits to the area by Jones, other eminent Brits included the agriculturalist Arthur Young and Ann Lister who made the first official ascent of the Vignemale, the highest of the French Pyrenean summits.
Wellington & Its Dukedom: a Footnote in History since 1809
At the public talk on 26th February 2015 in aid of the Society, entitled Wellington & Its Dukedom, Colin Spackman explained how and why Arthur Wellesley rose through the ranks of the peerage to become the Duke of Wellington. He also showed how the title has passed through succeeding generations, not always from father to son, to the current ninth holder. Other topics covered included the role of the Dukes as Lords of the Manor following the purchase of land around Wellington in the early 19th Century, the visits by Dukes to the town and how Wellington has, and has not, commemorated its links with the dukedom.
A History of where I live
At the Society event on 27th November 2014, five members of the Society gave a short talk on the history of where they live.
First up was David Rabson, who lives in half of the former rectory at Nynehead, which was built in 1867. The architect was John Hayward, a gothic revival ar- chitect based in Exeter who designed various public buildings, churches, schools and vicarages. One of his finest buildings is the Royal Albert Memorial Museum in Exeter. The rectory was built of local bricks and roof slates from North Wales. It was an early building to incorporate cavity walls and in a form of recycling, water tanks were installed in the loft space for flushing the toilets. It continued in use as a rectory until just after the 2nd World War. The building was divided into two dwellings in 1958.
Sophie Hippisley spoke about her house, which is one of the courtyard style houses built in 1977 along Barn Meads Road. The development was carried out on land that was previously part of Middle Green Farm, in the ownership of the Brook family. The scheme received a design award from Taunton Deane Borough Council for its innovative design.
John Hamer spoke about his house in Bishops Hull and some snippets from the history of the village. The land on which John’s house now stands was part of an area called the Islands and since being built in 1931, there have only been 4 owners. Concluding with some items from the area’s history, it was re- membered that, as well as Wellington, Bishops Hull also had a brickworks – lo- cated where the Cornishway trading estate now is. Previous incarnations of the Stonegallows pub were recalled – the Red Lion and the Hutcombe Café and Hotel. It was known locally as the Hutcombe Bunny – after the menu hold- ing rabbit on the side of the road!
David Hawkings spoke about what were originally 5 cottages adjacent to the former Rockwell Green Baptist Chapel, now the Rockwell Green Christian Fellowship. At one time they were in the ownership of ancestors of his, being referred to in a will of 1845. David then moved onto the ‘Modern Domesday’, which was the result of a measure brought about by the Finance Act 1910 and the Sun Fire Office insurance records, which gave the names of policyholders and descriptions of the property insured.
Finally Mike Perry talked about the various owners and occupiers of the build- ing occupied by Perrys the hardware shop on Fore Street and how the struc- ture of the building has changed over the years. The earliest record found by Mike was when EG Clarke sold the property to John Arbery in 1877, in whose family the shop remained for nearly 100 years, always as a draper’s. It was 2 of his grandsons who sold the shop to Mike’s father, Howard Thomas Perry, in 1971. In the Arbery family ownership, after 1900 there was a succession of tenants – Arthur Searle, Rowe Bros, HS Limmer, Duncalfes and finally Far- mers, which closed in 1969. There is a model of the shop in its former times in the Museum.
A Wellington Soldier
On 23rd October 2014, Andy Denham gave an illustrated talk about his great great grandfather’s life around the First World War. The talk was entitled ‘A Wellington Soldier – from Witchcraft to Warcraft’. Andy’s ancestor, Alphonso Rawlings Denham, is in- cluded in a list of those who served in the War, in Wellington Baptist Church in South Street. Alphonso’s father, Frederick, grew up in the Blackdown Hills at Ford Street. At that time, the area was one of deprivation and ignorance where witchcraft was widespread. There was also considerable out migration and Fred moved to Cardiff for work. There he drove a horse tram and married Ellen Honeybun before moving back to the Wellington area to set up the family horse bus business, which ran the town bus, services to Taunton, wedding and fu- neral services, furniture removals, parcel deliveries, etc. Following the onset of the First World War, Alphonso trained as a lorry driver and served in France and Italy. After the War, he tried to re-establish the bus service, but there was too much competition. He therefore became a delivery driver with International Stores. On his death in 1936, the Wellington Weekly News recorded that he had become well known to most of the town’s inhabitants. He is buried in Wel- lington Cemetery.
History of the Wool Trade in Wellington
The event on 25th September 2014 was held in the first wool warehouse in Wellington, which had been built by Weres in about 1720. Thomas Fox, who was related to the Were family, came on the scene in 1760. Fox could see that his new works at Tone Dale must be water powered and set about providing a constant supply by di- verting streams and creating the Basins to store water. Thomas Fox died in 1821, but by then his five sons had been trained to run the business. In 1838 reliable steam engines became available, powered by coal which could be de- livered via the nearby canal or railway. The main period of factory expansion came in the 1860’s, probably due to the new markets in the expanding Empire. At the start of the 20th century, the company might have been in difficulties, had it not been for the production of items for military use. The khaki colour was developed during the Boer War and during later wars Fox’s puttees were pro- duced in vast numbers. Problems began to mount up after the Second World War and following successive changes of ownership, in 2010 Deborah Meaden invested in the company and it continues to make top quality woollen cloth.
Pitt Farm, Culmstock
On July 31st 2014, members of the Society made their way to the end of a lane at Culmstock to view the collection of agricultural artefacts at Pitt Farm, Culmstock which is under the custodianship of Mr and Mrs Robert Garrett. This was a fascinating and intriguing follow up to the short talk Mr Garrett gave to the Society’s Annual General Meeting in March. The Society had visited the farm previously – in 1998. Museum cases obtained from Exeter's Royal Albert Memorial Museum & Art Gallery house hundreds of 18th Century fine pottery sherds made locally in the Blackdown Hills and a 17th Century pewter rat tail spoon, in two pieces, probably belonging to the Southey family. Moving up in size was a pio- neering x-ray machine from Chard dating back to the late 19th Century and a 2- seat horse-drawn carriage made by Halfyard of Wellington, which is probably unique. Elsewhere there were ploughs, sickles, tractors, everything imaginable and a few other things as well, including pieces often used in television program- mes and films featuring Victorian rural life such as the Victorian Farm. Coming more up to date, members saw a limited edition Morris Metro made for the Arctic.
Quaker Meeting House
On May 22nd 2014, members and guests of the Society visited the Quaker Meeting House in High Street, Wellington, where they were welcomed by Marion Dawson and another of the Friends and shown around the building and garden. Then Marion spoke about the history of the Society of Friends (who became known as Quakers) and the Wellington Meeting. George Fox (1624 – 1691) was a weaver’s son. He became dissatisfied with the various types of Christianity available to him and, following a mystic vision, decided to set up his own form of worship. He began travelling around the country talking to people and setting up groups of sympa- thisers, known as Friends. Their meetings involved periods of silent contempla- tion, without any set service, ranting preachers, rousing hymns or psalm singing. The Friends oppose war and the taking of oaths, they believe that all peo- ples are equal and they follow ethical work practices and philanthropy. The Wellington Meeting was first established in 1694 in a cottage in High Street. The present Meeting House is of a later date. The garden at the rear was originally their graveyard and some gravestones do still exist, but now it is kept as a place of peace.
Wellington Weekly News
At the Society event on April 24th 2014, Tony Brown talked about and answered questions about his time as Chief Reporter at the Wellington Weekly News, from recounting the day of his interview to his recent return as temporary Chief Reporter. The way of put- ting together and the content of the paper have changed over the years. At one time, a reporter would attend court hearings, parish and town council meetings and funerals, with the names of mourners being taken. Nowa- days items for inclusion in the paper are sent in by the public.
Annual General Meeting
At the Society's AGM on March 26th 2014, Chairman Judith Ward reported the sad death of Tony Dawes, who had helped to run the Society over many years. She also referred to the reorganizing of the Committee structure by having sub groups that reported back to the main Committee and also thanked all the Committee members for their work. Chief Steward, Carole Moore thanked all the stewards for the hours of work they put in, which amounted to about 1,000 last season, looking after our 2,500 or so visitors, and additionally helping with school visits. Treasurer, David Young reported on the annual accounts of the Society, which showed that there had been a small excess of expenditure over income on the Museum Account. This deficit would have been greater had we not received sums from both Waitrose and ASDA’s charity collections. Income from events had been affected by the bad weather and membership subscriptions were also down. Judith Ward was re-elected Chairman and Paddy Gray Vice-Chairman. Carole Moore and David Young con- tinue in their posts as secretary and treasurer respectively. The remainder of the committee consists of Bill Copley, John Hamer, Ray Hitchcock, Gillian Taylor, Colin Spackman and Linda Wiltshire. The AGM was followed by a talk by Mr RJ Garrett of Pitt Farm on the connections between Pitt Farm, Culmstock and Wellington School.
The 18th Century Pleasure Gardens of Bath
On February 27th 2014, David Young gave a talk on what were probably the greatest pleasure gardens outside London, where Jane Austin walked every day when she lived in Bath. The Spa at Bath had become a popular and fashionable resort, and many of the no- bility and gentry visited not just to take the waters but also to be seen with the right people in the right place. By the middle of the century, a popular form of open-air amusement was the pleasure gardens. The cost of admission was nor- mally sixpence, the ticket received being exchangeable for refreshments at the bar. Music, galas and firework displays were also very popular at the various gardens. The period culminated in the laying out of Sydney Gardens, where the facilities included bowling greens, a grotto, a grand camera obscura and a laby- rinth, which was advertised as being so perplexing that correct plans of it were sold at the bar. By the mid nineteenth century it seems that fashionable society was becoming tired of Bath, and sufficient numbers of royalty and nobility were no longer visiting the city, either for the season or to take the waters. Fashions were changing too; private parties were far more popular now than the large public gatherings of the past. After a period of neglect and dereliction, the City Council took over the gardens in 1913 and they became a municipal park, being free for all to walk in.
Five favourite museum artefacts
At the event on 27th November 2013, 5 Committee members each gave a short talk on their favourite artifact from the Museum, making use of the Wellington Arts Centre's microphone and pa system.
First up was Carole Moore, whose subject was a prescription book from the late 19th century from Hoyles Pharmacy, one of several in the Museum’s collection. This was at a time when the pharmacist still made up the drugs themselves from recipes. The book contained much detail including the prescriptions, the quantities of drugs and the names of people. By looking at the drugs dispensed it is possible to have a stab at what ailments the citizens of the town were suffering from. Paddy Gray recounted his part in Relyon, using a pack of cards with a round bed on the front. This was one of many special order beds and mattresses that Paddy has made over the years. These have included a wedding present from Harrods to Charles and Diana and orders for Mick Jagger, Cliff Richard and Dick Emery. John Hamer talked about the Directories, using the 1912 one as an example. They provide a link between the museum, local history and family history, holding a mine of information about the local community, its organisations and the individuals who lived in the town. Many of the Wellington Directories were published by L Tozer & Co, who at the time was the publisher of the Wellington Weekly News. Colin Spackman’s subject was a road map of Bristol to Exeter published in 1675 by John Ogilvy. This was at a time when roads were not tarmaced and became rutted and there were also no road signs, with common carriers averaging about 4 miles an hour. Colin described parts of the 79 mile route. These maps, which were published for routes all over the country were the forerunner of modern road maps. Finally Judith Ward played a guessing game describing one of the longest items in the museum, originating in the home counties in the late 1940s, which is seen as being very useful and multifunctional. This turned out to be Colin, the museum curator!
West Somerset Railway
At the October 2013 meeting, members were the guests of Taunton & District Civic Society. The speaker was Paul Conibeare, the General Manager of the West Somerset Railway. Following closure in 1971, the railway partially reopened in 1976 and Paul started work on the railway as a fireman in 1979, the same year the railway reopened over its current operating length between Minehead and Bishops Lydeard. Although the early years of operation were a struggle, the railway is now in the forefront of the heritage railway movement with 50 full time staff and around 1,000 volunteers. Developments in recent years have included the installation of a turntable at Minehead and the provision of a triangle at Norton Fitzwarren (enabling whole trains to be turned). Passenger numbers now exceed 200,000 annually, the majority arriving at Bishops Lydeard. In Minehead, the spinoff to the local economy has been estimated at £10m per annum. Paul’s talk included a description of a journey along the line, including stopping at each of the stations. Looking to the future, 5 acres of land have been purchased at Bishops Lydeard with a view to providing carriage storage sheds. Running through services to Taunton is possible, but there are problems, including the cost of £5m for reinstatement of previously lifted track. However, the railway wouldn’t be averse to First Great Western extending its Cardiff to Taunton service to Bishops Lydeard.
On September 26th, members heard Geoffrey Bass give an illustrated talk about armada beacons in Devon. Beacons were fires lit on hilltops as a means of communication and date from pre-history times. Initially, they were just bonfires, but by the Middle Ages pole beacons were common. In 1326, Edward II feared an attack from France and gave out the order to all Counties to set up beacons in order to convey news of any impending invasion. They were further developed during the Tudor Age, when perhaps their most effective use was their role in Britain repelling the Spanish Armada in 1588. Some beacons had a stone enclosure, which provided shelter for the beacon keeper while he was on watch and kept the fire material dry. The most well known example locally is Culmstock Beacon. The use of hilltop bonfires on hilltops as a means of celebrating events such as Jubilees was a relatively recent introduction – during the Victorian Age.
Visit to Wellington Baptist Church
On 18th July, members of the Society recently visited Wellington Baptist Church, as part of the Council for British Archaeology’s Festival of Archaeology. Pastor Sam Griffiths explained the background to the chapel being built 180 years ago and explained how the building has evolved into the form it is today. A larger schoolroom was added in 1865 and the chapel itself was extended in 1877 to increase its capacity from 450 to 600. The proportions of the new expanded space meant that in order to make full use of it, the interior arrangement was turned through 90 degrees. Yet another extension, to the schoolroom, was added in 1907. 1966 saw land on the west side of the chapel being sold and it becoming South Street car park. In 1982, an electric organ with speakers replaced the pipe organ and in 2008, further changes were made to the worship centre with the pews being removed. Sam led members and visitors on a tour of the building, which has some intriguing levels, largely due to the various extensions at different times. The history of this church shows that it has never stood still and is not afraid to change.
On 27thJune, members of the Society met for the annual Midsummer Urban Ramble led by Colin Spackman. Starting at the car park in Courtland Road, the walk took in Mantle Street, Champford Lane and Bulford. Mantle Street includes some fine underrated buildings from different periods. The art deco Wellesley Cinema continues to provide film and theatre entertainment for the town. What was formerly the Ford Brothers foundry has been redeveloped for housing and named Tylor Place. Ironwork from the foundry can be found throughout the town. The Ship Inn is the most recent of a long line of public houses that have been closed and converted to residential use. Champford Mews is what was previously part of Champford Lane. Although the latter was diverted when the Walkers Gate housing was built on the site of the old milk factory site, the old metal street name sign is still in position on the gable end of a house. Little now remains of the former factory other than the former manager’s house. The variety of styles of design in the Howard built houses on Champford Lane were admired. After walking along Bulford Lane / Improvement Place, the group passed along a little known public right of way from Martins Buildings to get back onto Mantle Street.
Somerset & Dorset Burials Data
On 23rd May, the Society’s Carole Moore and David Hearn from the Somerset & Dorset Family History Society (S&DFHS) described the various sources and location of Somerset and Dorset burials data from as long ago as the 15th century. The S&DFHS has since 1993 been capturing on computer as much information as it can of the burial data in the two counties. The prime source is the hand-written parish records that have been deposited in the two county record offices. These records are made available on microfilm or microfiche and then need to be transcribed. Transcription is not always straightforward. Handwriting styles have changed considerably over the years, as have spellings – there are for example, more than 15 variations on the name Whitcombe. Also the calendar changes in 1751 can cause confusion for the uninitiated. The S&DFHS database contains over 1.2 million records and is increasing by up to 20,000 each quarterly update. But the coverage by parish varies – some are well indexed, others less so. The earliest are from the 15th century, the most recent from the 21st. There are now only a handful of volunteers transcribing and checking – more would be welcome. The Society’s burials enquiry service offers two kinds of search – a named person search and a blanket search for members only. Details of cost and who to contact are on the Society’s web site at www.sdfhs.org .
United Reformed Church, Fore Street
On April 25th 2013, Members of the Society visited the United Reformed Church in Fore Street. Church elders Andrew Harvey and Steve Disney gave a conducted tour and explained the way the building has evolved into the form it is today, with a smaller sanctuary and a separate meeting hall to the rear. The building was formerly a Congregational Church, becoming a United Reformed Church in 1972 when the Congregationalists and Presbyterians combined. The Congregationalists grew out of the1662 Act of Uniformity, when many clergymen refused to conform and were expelled from the Church of England, in what became known as the Great Ejection. This was effectively the start of non-conformism. Early meetings of Congregationalists in Wellington took place in a room at the back of the Three Cups Hotel. However the licensee became increasingly concerned at loss of trade caused by funerals held at the premises. Adjacent land was donated by James Perry in 1728 to build a church and in 1730 a brick built chapel was opened. The pulpit from that first building is still in the existing church. In 1861, the current building was completed providing capacity for a congregation of 600.
At the annual meeting on March 28th 2013, outgoing chairman Bill Copley referred to the fact that this year sees the 30th anniversary of the opening of the museum. He thanked the Town Council for its continued support and in recognition of this, a reception for councillors is to be held at the end of April. Bill also thanked the stewards and winter working parties in the museum. The monthly events had continued, although affected to an extent by the inclement weather during the winter months. Judith Ward was elected chairman and Paddy Gray was elected vice-chairman. Carole Moore, David Young and Colin Spackman continue in their posts as secretary, treasurer and curator respectively. The remainder of the committee now consists of Bill Copley, John Hamer, Ray Hitchcock, Paul Cottrell, Lindsey Withers and Gillian Taylor. The meeting was followed by the curator showing some of the recent donations to the museum, including a tea towel with self drawn pictures of school pupils, a tankard from the now closed Ship Inn and a number of carnival programmes.
On February 28th, members heard local amateur weather watcher, Simon Ratsey, give a talk about Wellington’s Weather. It was rather ironic that the previous two Society events did not proceed as planned because of inclement weather – snow and flooding! Since the year 2000, Simon has written a monthly weather report in the Wellington Weekly News. Befitting the organisation he was addressing, Simon concentrated on what the weather has done locally in the past. Growing up on a farm and also having an interest in fishing, he became very aware of the significance of the weather at an early age. His day job was eventually to be a geography teacher. Climate can vary within a small area, largely being dependent on the local topography. Wellington is a good place to live for weather, being more typical of inland southern England rather than the south-west generally. The Quantock, Blackdown and Brendon hills are very much a determinant of this. It has only been in the last 50 years that comprehensive weather records have been collected. Simon’s own records span the last 40 years or so. Before then, articles in newspapers can give an indication of the weather. Going back 100 years or so, a report on the Taunton Flower Show indicated that 1911 was one of the hottest summers in memory. This was followed in 1912 by the wettest summer of the century – the consequence of a volcanic eruption in Alaska. In 1921, there was a drought with water tanks and heath fires. 1924 saw wet weather, with cricket matches badly affected. People awoke on Christmas Day 1927 to a snow blizzard. The first three months of 1929 had continuous severe frosts. During World War 2 there were no reports, but it is known that three of the hardest winters of the century occurred during that time. In more recent times, in 1976 the heatwave and drought resulted in Clatworthy reservoir being reduced to 27% of its capacity. Coming right up to date, last year was the wettest on record by a massive margin, raining on 213 days with 40% of it falling on just 18 separate days. The previous wettest year was 2002. As to the future, there is an adage that ‘if it has happened before it could happen again’ – take note.
Transportation of Criminals
On 25th October, at the annual joint meeting with Taunton & District Civic Society, David Hawkings gave an illustrated talk about his research into the 19th Century punishment of transportation to foreign lands. When he started researching his family’s history back in 1964, he was advised to look at criminal records and he came across 5. These included his 4 times great grandfather, John Hawkings, who was transported to Australia for stealing a sheep and killing it. The practice of transportation replaced hanging for certain crimes during the 17th Century. In 1788, 733 convicts were sent from Britain to Australia. David’s ancestor was transported to Australia in 1806. From Treasury records, criminal records and transportation orders, it is possible to build up a picture of the criminals involved around that time. Australian newspapers are also an invaluable source of information on the later lives of those transported. Transportation from Britain officially ended in 1868, although it had become uncommon several years earlier.
Somerset in 1952
On 27th September, standing in for the advertised speaker who was unable to attend, Colin Spackman gave a talk on Somerset in 1952, from the point of view of visiting holidaymakers. Then it included what is now North Somerset, BANES and bits of Bristol. Many people from elsewhere used some of their statutory holiday (less than today’s entitlement) on a visit to Somerset. If arriving by road, a typical car then was an Austin 7 or a Morris 8 from the indigenous motor industry. There were problems in getting here – petrol was still rationed and the M4 and M5 were still another 15-20 years away. Or, perhaps we would arrive by train – steam hauled. Then there many more lines, before the Beeching cuts of the 1960s swept away routes such as the Somerset & Dorset, which wound its way from Bath to Bournemouth via Radstock, Shepton Mallett and Wincanton. Once in the county, there more opportunities to travel around by train, including to and from Wellington. It was also possible to take a day trip by paddle steamer to South Wales. For entertainment, many towns had at least one picture house and pubs were more plentiful (and if you overindulged, you could go into a wc and spend a penny, literally). Food at your B&B would have been more restricted than today, partly due to rationing and being before the onset of frozen meals and dishes from other countries. For those lucky people with television, there were fewer channels, poor reception in many areas and for only a few hours a day. In the pre transistor age of radio, there was no VHF, DAB or Radio Somerset – but the Archers was already underway. Phoning relatives to tell them what a fine time you were having in the beautiful county of Somerset was less straightforward than today. No mobiles, and if you had a landline it may have been a party line. Since then the resident population of Somerset has increased by 50% (twice the increase nationally).
Midsummer Urban Ramble
On 28th June, members of the Society met for the annual Midsummer Urban Ramble led by Colin Spackman. Starting at the car park in Courtland Road, the walk took in Rookery Terrace, Mantle Street, and the area of the former cattle market (now the North Street car park). There were comparisons between the current buildings and townscape in this Diamond Jubilee year and those present in the year of Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee, 1897. The park was still to be laid out – in 1903. However, Victorian terraced housing had progressed down Mantle Street as far as Hyacinth Terrace. In the same street, it was noted that the building which is now the Roman Catholic Church was the Popham’s Almshouses until 1933, when new almshouses were built in Victoria Street. The two Champford Lanes were seen. The original Champford Lane was diverted through the Walkers Gate housing development when the former milk factory was redeveloped in the 1990’s. However the original street nameplate survives on the wall of the end property. Chadwell House was passed – now a private dwelling, but at one time it was the children’s home for the Workhouse in the town. In Mantle Street, several original shop-fronts which would have been present in 1897 survive.
All Saints Church, Rockwell Green
On 25th May, members of the Society joined with Nynehead & District Local History Society for a visit to All Saints’ Church, Rockwell Green. The visit was organised by David and Sheila Rabson. Visitors had an opportunity to visit the bell-ringing room, view the bells and visit the organ loft, to which there is normally restricted access. The Vicar, Rev. Christopher Rowley, welcomed members and together with David Rabson gave a brief history of the circumstances leading to the building of the church.
The building was designed by J Houghton Spencer, a Taunton architect who also designed St Andrews Church in Rowbarton, Taunton. It was financed by Frederick Thomas Elworthy, of the well-known local family, at a cost of around £5,000. When the church was opened in 1890, the funds available did not permit the expense of erecting the tower and spire. These were added in 1908. The external walls are of local red sandstone, lined internally with brick and stone dressings. Three colours of brick were used – buff, blue/black and red, giving an internal appearance as ‘railway gothic’. The church has no monuments, but records the freemasonry connection of its benefactor (FT Elworthy) with one of its stained glass windows – made in Munich, Germany. William Josiah Giles, a local sculptor, carved the pulpit and font.
Hemyock and its Milk Factory
On 26th April, around 30 members of the Society heard local historian Brian Clyst talk about Hemyock and its Milk factory, illustrated by some of Michael Cooper’s slides from the Blackdown Archive collection. The arrival of the railway in the village in 1876 meant that farmers in areas such as Devon were able to make butter and exploit increased markets for their products. Consequently, the first mechanically operated butter making factory in the West of England was started at Mountshayne in 1886 by a partnership of 4 local farmers. Expansion after its opening was meteoric, with milk coming from farms up to 10 miles away. The premises were altered over the years and smaller depots were opened in Culmstock and Clayhiddon, where processes were established to separate out the cream, a necessary part of the process. In 1897 the factory moved to Millhayes, a former corn mill, which was by the River Culm and next to the railway. The factory management gave a worker’s bonus, giving them a financial share in the company. This was a reflection of the non-comformist liberal background of the owners. During the First World War, the factory was taken over by United Dairies. The railway was the prime means of transport of the products from the facory until the 1960s, when road transport began to take over. The railway finally closed in 1975. The factory ended its days in the 1990s, having in its final years produced St Ival Gold and Utterly Butterly. Most of the site has been redeveloped with new housing, but the former social club building is still standing and in use as the Blackdown Healthy Living Centre.
At the annual meeting on 29th March 2012 , Bill Copley was re-elected chairman for his third and final year and Judith Ward was re-elected vice-chairman for the second her second year. Colin Spackman and Caroline Newcombe stood down from their posts as secretary and treasurer respectively as they had reached the end of their maximum five-year tenure. Carole Moore was elected secretary and David Young treasurer. The Committee now consists of Paul Cottrill, Tony Dawes, Ray Hitchcock, John Hamer, Colin Spackman and Paddy Gray. The meeting was followed by an open discussion on how Wellington commemorated royal jubilees since Queen Victoria’s in 1887. That year had seen an all-day event on Tuesday June 21. It started at daybreak with a peal of bells and a 21-gun salute and finished after 9pm with a firework display. During the day there had been a grand procession through the town by representatives of the Local Board, the precursor to the urban district council, local trades and businesses, and schools. There had been tea and sports for the children.
Young People & the Law - Our Different Experiences
On 22nd February, members paid their annual visit to the Wellington Youth Centre to share their experiences of young people and the law. The youth leaders and the young people gave presentations. A Police Community Support Officer and a Magistrate also gave the perspective from the angle of their area of work. The perspectives were looked at over the ages and in particular over the last 20 years or so, which has been a period characterised by less progression of work with greater multi tasking. From the PCSO's and Magistrates viewpoint, young people from broken homes were the most likely to offend - a situation largely brought on by feelings of anger, frustration and boredom. However, on the whole, teenagers were considered to be very energetic and were leaving their parents behind in areas of communicating and networking. Continued collaboration between the Centre and the Society was considered to be valuable.
400 Years of the King James Bible
On 26th January, members had a talk from visiting speaker, James Bradnock, whose subject was ‘400 Years of the King James Bible and how it was celebrated in Wellington’.
James gave the background to the production of the Bible, including earlier translations in the 200 years or so before. The first complete English translations of the Christian scriptures were undertaken by John Wycliffe in the early 15th Century. Other translations by William Tyndale and Myles Coverdale followed in the 16th Century and became the basis for the Great Bible, which was the first ‘authorised version’ issued by the Church of England during the reign of Henry VIII. When Mary I succeeded to the throne in 1553, she returned the Church of England to the communion of the Roman Catholic faith and many English religious reformers fled the country, some establishing an English speaking colony in Geneva. These expatriates undertook a translation that became known as the Geneva Bible. In 1568, the Church of England responded with the Bishop’s Bible, a revision of the Great Bible in the light of the Geneva version.
In 1604, the newly crowned King James convened the Hampton Court Conference. That gathering proposed a new English version to address issues raised by the Puritan faction of the Church of England. The task of translation was undertaken by about 50 scholars working in 6 committees, with Archbishop Bancroft in overall charge. The first completed versions were produced in 1611. In 1769, Benjamin Blayney produced a ‘corrected’ version which, due to advances in printing technology, established itself as completely dominant in public and ecclesiastical use in the English speaking Protestant world.
Celebration of the 400th Anniversary of the King James Bible in Wellington followed 15 months of planning. A week long series of events at the end of last September included an exhibition, an art competition, a bible quiz and visits to local schools. But the main feature was a reading aloud of the Bible by 221 different people over a period of 78 hours. The venue for this marathon was outdoors in the High Street during the day and in 5 local churches in the evenings.
Where I Live
On Thursday 17th November 2011, several members of the Society spoke about their house, street, etc. We saw how Pyles Thorne Road has developed since the 1920's, when it was a quiet country lane. Many of the early houses were designed by Thomas Howard, the Town Architect. He was a keen cyclist, hence the lack of garages when the houses were first built! There was a uniformity in the standard of construction, with many of the materials being from the brickworks at Poole - supporting local industry. Subsequent developments resulted in side roads in the form of Shuteleigh and Mornington Park. In the 1970s, Pyles Thorne Close was built on what had been a prisoner of war camp.
The row of 18 cottages forming Improvement Place formed the next segment. Many of these '2 up and 2 down' cottages built of stone, brick and slate have had additions made to them over the years.
Shuteleigh was built in 1835, when Charles Henry Fox married into the Hancock family, the brewers from Wiveliscombe. Following a fire in 1951, the property passed through the Burnett family before being developed by Magnus Developments in the mid 80s into what is now Cedar Court.
Another Magnus development was covered in the form of Gillards Close at Rockwell Green, which was built in 1991.
Finally, Wellesley Park which commenced in the 1890s by the Wellington Estates Company along what was then known as Butts Lane. In the late 1920s, development commenced along what is now the east-west part of Wellesley Park. Many of these properties were originally laid out with spacious gardens, including tennis courts, although over the yeras many of these have been the subject of 'infill' development.
Visit to Taunton Civic Society
The Society's October event was a visit to Taunton Civic Society, when we were entertained by Martin Horler, who gave an illustrated history of 18th Century mail coaches and the role played by their guards. The talk was enlivened by the blowing of various commands on a guard's horn and we were able to see and handle various other objects such as the guard's pistol. Martin was even dressed the part in a thick scarlet and gold uniform.
The Blackdown Archive
On Thursday 22nd September 2011, Michael Cooper from Hemyock spoke about this project. It aims to collect digital images of photographs and documents from all across the Blackdowns. Michael described how it started, how it is funded and the progress to date. Fragile photographs have been scanned and added to the collection. Many have been digitally enhanced to capture interesting detail, often missed until now. To date, the collection contains more than 2,300 local family photographs.
Midsummer Urban Ramble
The weather was kind to us (it didn't rain) on the evening of Thursday 23rd June 2011 when 15 members made their way around a circular route starting at the Sports Centre. The combined extensive knowledge of society secretary, Colin Spackman, and Richard Fox was fascinating and everyone seemed to come across something they had not seen before. Points of interest during the walk included, among others, the industrial archaeology of the Basins and its water supply, the fine 360 degree panorama from Hilly Head, a tree planted 100 years and 2 days earlier and the nature reserve by the Sports Centre.
Waitrose in the Community
On Thursday 26th May 2011 a large turnout heard a representative of Waitrose outline the history of the company and its coming to Wellington. This was followed by a discussion on Waitrose in general and in particular the company's experience in Wellington.
On Friday 20th May 2011 the annual members' meal took place at the Martlet Inn at Langford Budville.
31 members attended the Annual Meeting, held at Wellington Junior School on Thursday 24th March 2011. There were a few changes to the composition of the Committee. Bill Copley was re-elected as Chairman; Judith Ward replaced Carole Moore who was no longer eligible as Vice Chairman. Caroline Newcombe and Colin Spackman were re-elected as Treasurer and Secretary respectively. The following were also elected to the Committee: Carole Moore, Paul Cottrill, Tony Dawes, Ray Hitchcock, John Hamer and David Young. There are still two vacancies on the Committee. The Society's finances continued on an even course, with a small excess of income over expenditure. It was agreed to increase all classes of annual membership by 50p with effect from October. Several new stewards had come forward and would begin training when the museum reopens for the season on 11th April. With space restricted, the Society was now focussing on promoting Wellington's history and so was seeking to find another home for some of its more general interest items. More artefacts are to be made available in the museum in the coming season. Three new Holding Trustees; Tina Wells, Adam Gibson and Simon Newcombe had been appointed during the year to replace those that had to withdraw.
The formal part of the meeting was followed by an open discussion on the history of the Wellington Co-op. It seems that the business started around 1893 and went through several mergers and takeovers before ending up in its current situation as part of a national organisation. Members of the audience contributed their memories of the Co-op when it was in North Street where Belvedere Court is now, of the other shops in and around the town and the role the Co-op has played in the growth of Wellington.
Growing up in Wellington in the 21st Century
. After watching a short film of young people being interviewed about their opinions of the town, there was a lively and candid discussion, members of the centre showed their visitors around and challenged them to games of table football. Further collaborations between the centre and the Society are planned.
6 Objects & 6 Voices
On Thursday November 25th 2010, six members of the Society each spoke about a different object in the Museum's collection. Carole Moore, using a commemorative plate, recalled the World Ploughing Contest held at Nynehead in 1971, which she had attended as a programme seller. Tina Wells spoke about and demonstrated the versatile Edwardian child's wooden high chair that converts into a wheeled pushchair and a rocking chair. Then Brian Hillier demonstrated the way in which railway signalmen used to use their block instruments and bells to control the passage of trains. Two volunteers from the audience acted as signalmen, while another was the train. Bill Copley spoke about the life and times of William Sydney Price who had, in the early 20th Century, lived in the house now occupied by Mr Copley. David Young explained the circumstances that led to the Fox Fowler bank being the last private bank to issue legal tender currency notes in England in 1921. Finally Rosemary Bailey used the Museum's 'Bishops Brothers' branded lavatory cistern to describe the company and its impact on the town.
Wellington Park - its Past, Present and Future
On Thursday 21st October 2010, an audience of around 40 heard Richard Fox describe the origins of the park, followed byPaul Saturley from Taunton Deane Borough Council, who talked about how they maintain the park and where it fits into their work across the district. DouglasMarshall then showed some slides of the park during its 100 years of existence and finally Iris Ellins spoke about the role that the Friends of Wellington Park play in maintaining the park's recent successes in gaining Green Flag Award status.
Wellington's History as revealed by its Street Names
On Thursday 23rd September 2010, the audience discovered how new streets in Wellington get their names and more about some of the existing names.
Midsummer Urban Ramble
On Thursday 24th June 2010, a walk of about a mile and a half in length commencing outside Rockwell Green Cemetery enabled members to share their memories and knowledge of Rockwell Green.
Wellington Street Fair
On Sunday 6th June 2010, the Society had a small display in conjunction with Oxfam.
Tour of South Street Baptist Church
On Thursday 20th May 2010, a tour of the church and its adjoining buildings was led by Pastor Sam Griffiths. The original building with its Italianate pillars dates from 1833, but there have been many subsequent additions and alterations.
This was held on Friday 23rd April 2010 at the Beambridge Inn.
Museum Society's 2010 AGM - Town Stream
On Thursday 18th March 2010, after the formal business of the AGM, there was an open discussion on the Town Stream. Knowledge and memories of the stream from long term Wellington residents were augmented by extracts from 'When I was a Boy', A L Humphey's memoir about his boyhood in the town in the 1880's. There were also extracts read from a late Victorian document produced for the Local Board (a forerunner of the Town Council) giving details of various legal actions regarding access to and repair of the Stream. Both of these documents are in the Museum's collection.
Fox's Workers Committee, 1920 - Tina Wells
On Thursday 25th February 2010 Tina skilfully interpreted the minute book of Fox's Workers' Committee of 90 years ago, from the Society's collection, to illustrate vividly the workers' concerns as the word's economy fell into the depression of the 1920's. She also described some of the firm's welfare provisions which were very advanced for the period.
Policing Wellington - Sergeant Stuart Bell
On Thursday 28th January 2010 Sgt Bell gave a candid and interesting talk on the problems and pleasures of policing in Wellington. He described how the impact of technology and governement initiatives had affected policing over the last decade or more.